Theory E²: Working with Entrepreneurs in Closely -Held Enterprises–IV. The Entrepreneur in Action

Theory E²: Working with Entrepreneurs in Closely -Held Enterprises–IV. The Entrepreneur in Action

William Bergquist

A central tenant of an appreciative perspective on entrepreneurship is recognition and understanding of the complex situations in which entrepreneurs as decision-makers find themselves. Different approaches to entrepreneurship and decision-making must be taken in different situations. In the next four essays we describe four styles of entrepreneurship and relate each style to seven environmental characteristics. These four styles of entrepreneurship—assertive, inspiring, thoughtful and participating —represent quite different notions about the purposes, functions and values associated with making decisions in today’s organizations. Each style must be fully appreciated if an E² Theory is to be successfully employed—for each approach plays an important role in most closely-held enterprises.

Each of the styles builds on a distinctive set of assumptions about ways in which one can be effective in making decisions in an organization and each has proven successful in some settings and unsuccessful in others. Some entrepreneurs fit comfortably into one or two of these styles; others can move rather easily between all four (although most people retain one approach that seems most natural and comfortable).


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About the Author

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William BergquistWilliam Bergquist, Ph.D. An international coach and consultant in the fields of psychology, management and public administration, author of more than 50 books, and president of a psychology institute. Dr. Bergquist consults on and writes about personal, group, organizational and societal transitions and transformations. His published work ranges from the personal transitions of men and women in their 50s and the struggles of men and women in recovering from strokes to the experiences of freedom among the men and women of Eastern Europe following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In recent years, Bergquist has focused on the processes of organizational coaching. He is coauthor with Agnes Mura of coachbook, co-founder of the International Journal of Coaching in Organizations and co-founder of the International Consortium for Coaching in Organizations.

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